Blasting | Britannica

Blasting, process of reducing a solid body, such as rock, to fragments by using an explosive.Conventional blasting operations include (1) drilling holes, (2) placing a charge and detonator in each hole, (3) detonating the charge, and (4) clearing away the broken material.. Upon detonation, the chemical energy in the explosive is liberated, and the compact explosive becomes transformed into a ...

Fact sheet Energy use in the steel industry

ore and coal used, the steel product mix, operation control technology, and material efficiency. • Energy is also consumed indirectly for the mining, preparation, and transportation of raw materials. In the blast furnace-basic oxygen furnace (BF-BOF) route, this accounts for about 9% of the total energy required to

Blasting Techniques Used in Underground and Opencast Mines ...

The blasting is known as blasting-off-the-solid or, in short solid blasting. P5 explosive is used along with Carrick short delay detonators (of I.E.L) or coal delay detonators (of l.D.L.) Introduction of such blasting in mines needs approval from the D.G.M.S. for exemption under the following regulations: (a) Reg. 173- To blast off the solid.

Blasting - OSMRE

Apr 24, 2017· The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) requires that coal mining be conducted in a manner that prevents injury to people and damage to public or private property during blasting. The side effects of blasting are "flyrock" a rock or rocks moving through the air or along the ground after a blast and travel beyond the blast …

Numerical modeling on destress blasting in coal seam for ...

Controlled blasting for loosening coal seams is one of the most important measures to enhance gas drainage and thus prevent coal and gas outbursts. The formation and development of blasting-induced damage zone, as well as the gas flow in damaged coal seams, can be considered as a coupled process among gas flow, solid deformation and damage. In this work, a coupled multiphysical model for the ...

COREX® — SMELTING REDUCTION PROCESS | Primetals Technologies

Blast furnace operators strive to enrich the hot blast with oxygen, but nitrogen is a burden to this process. Corex already uses high-purity oxygen, resulting in a nearly nitrogen-free top gas. Because of its high calorific value, this gas can be recycled for reduction work, used for heat/energy generation, or to produce ethanol and acidic acid ...

Blasting in Underground Coal Mines

Blasting in Coal Mines •Modern mechanised coal mines use machines and longwall mining methods to cut solid coal and convey the broken coal out of underground workings. •Continuous mining equipment has escalated coal production and introduced more effective and efficient coal handling facilities.

OSMRE Major Programs

Jun 27, 2017· Technology Development and Transfer Program Applying Science and Technology. One of the ways that the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement balances coal production with environmental protection is by providing resources for technical assistance, training, and technology development.

4 Coal Mining and Processing | Coal: Research and ...

The U.S. coal industry serves a vital role in the nation's economy by producing fuel for more than half of its electricity. Despite the industry's importance, industry financial data for 2005—the strongest year for the coal industry in recent years—shows that it is a relatively small industry with revenues totaling $20 billion to $25 billion and net income between $1 billion and $2 ...

Pathways to decarbonisation episode two: steelmaking ...

Use of biomass – Biomass can be used across integrated steelmaking as a source of fuel or reductant, substituting coal or other fuels in the sintering process, as a blend component in the production of coke, as a direct replacement for coke or as an injectant to replace injected pulverised coal in the blast furnace, and as a source of carbon ...

Corex Process for Production of Iron – IspatGuru

Feb 22, 2017· It is the first and the only commercially established smelting-reduction process based on non-coking coal which is available as an alternative route to the blast furnace for the production of hot metal. Corex process was developed by the Austrian technology supplier VOEST in the late 1970s, and its feasibility was confirmed during the 1980s.

Selection of overburden surface mining method in West ...

used in WV surface coal mining in 2009. Considering an average price of blasting agents (bulk emulsions, slurry and ANFO) of $1.14 per kg, the surface coal mines in WV spent almost $400 million for explosives alone. This does not include additional blasting accessories such as deto-nators, boosters, detonating cords, lead lines, additional

Blasting Safety – Revisiting Site Security

The bounds of the blast area were not adequately determined for this blast. In a coal mine blast, flyrock traveled 900 feet and landed beyond the permit boundary causing a fatal injury [MSHA, 1990a]. During a construction blasting operation near Marlboro, NY, flyrock was showered on passing motorists on Route 9 W about 180 feet from the blast pit.

Engineering Controls Database - Control Technology and ...

Process Description and Work Practices Abrasive blasting was conducted inside Secondary Clarifier no. 2, an empty open-top, in-ground circular vessel 110 feet in diameter and approximately 10 feet deep. The abrasive media, Black Beauty™ brand coal slag abrasive, was supplied in 100 pound bags.

Using Syngas to make DRI in the MIDREX Process

TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS TO PRODUCE DRI UTILIZING VARIOUS FUEL SOURCES INCLUDING NATURAL GAS, COAL, COG AND PROCESS SYNGAS. JSPL ANGUL The world's first DRI Plant with coal gasifier at JSPL Angul I, India began operation in 2014.

Cost Effectiveness Analysis of HYL and Midrex DRI ...

Apr 27, 2016· installing new technology at an existing steel mill that uses blast furnace technology in an effort to reduce direct CO 2 emissions. The first section of this report describes the steel making process and related carbon dioxide emissions. It reviews the two primary methods in which steel is produced: blast furnace/basic oxygen furnace and the

Economic Evaluation of Drilling and Blasting on the ...

Landau Colliery is one of Anglo Thermal Coal's mines that want to investigate the economic impact of both the drilling and blasting process on the overburden removal process (Dragline), they want to know how the drilling process, blasting process and the earth removal process economically affect the mine.

The hole story: the benefits of drill and blast | Engineer ...

Apr 21, 2016· Hexagon Mining looks at the entire mining process to identify areas where technology can be applied to improve coal production. The drill and blast process is one area where considerable benefits can be gained. Design accuracy. Firstly the design of the pit should be examined.

Drill And Blast Best Practices Part One: Bench Preparation ...

Jul 13, 2020· The safety and quality of a drilling and blasting process is the result of a series of well-performed steps, which I would prefer calling 'procedures'. A procedure is a set of mandatory activities to be executed every time, regardless of any variables such as blast size, bench position or rush required for the operation.

Pulverized Coal Injection | Industrial Efficiency ...

Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) is a process that involves blowing large volumes of fine coal granules into the BF. This provides a supplemental carbon source to speed up the production of metallic iron, reducing the need for coke production. As a result energy use and emissions can be reduced. However, as coke provides physical support and gas permeability in the BF, its complete ...

Coal and the Blast Furnace

Dec 25, 2019· Some 5600 years passed before any attempt was made to use coal as a fuel for the blast furnace. Blast Furnace Practice. No one factor can be pointed to as the prime cause of reduced coke rates and increasing production. Constant changes in blast furnace technology have brought about varying degrees of improvements in this industry.

Key technologies of drilling process with raise boring ...

Aug 01, 2015· In these projects, the boring machines drill through rocks characterized with different properties. In coal mines, coal is one of the major types of sedimentary rocks with low uniaxial compression strength (UCS) (<120 MPa). The drilling depth in coal mines can reach 600 m, and the maximum diameter of back reaming reaches 5 m.

(PDF) Destress Blasting in Coal Mining – State-of-the-Art ...

[25] Kexin, D. Maintenance of roadways in soft rock by roadway-rib destress blasting (In Chinese), China Coal Society. 20, 3. 311-316, 1995 [26] Xia, H., Xu, Y., Zong, Qi and Fu, J. Research on the technology of unloading blast for a deep soft rock tunnel and its engineering application (In Chinese), Journal. of Anhui Univ. of Science and Tech ...